Cusco & The Southern Sierra
The Southern Sierra region is most famous for Cusco, which just like New York, New York is both a city and a region. The history of the Inca is fascinating and you can visit dozens of archeological sites, many of which were whole cities like Machu Picchu.
This is the most famous region in all of Peru, partly for Machu Picchu but also partly because Cusco was the capital of Tahuantinsuyu.
The Quecha word Tahuantinsuyu can be translated as “the four quarters” referring to the four quarters into which the Inca divided their territory. Many English guides refer to the Inca state as an empire, though Peruvian historians argue that the social organization of the Inca was so different from any of the empires of Europe or Asia that the word just doesn’t apply. If Tahuantinsuyu is too much of a mouthful for you, the term Incario is also used by Peruvian historians and archeologists.